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Monday, May 28, 2007


A society is a grouping of individuals, which is characterized by common interests and may have distinctive culture and institutions. In a society, members can be from a different ethnic group. A "Society" may refer to a particular people, such as the Nuer, to a nation state, such as Switzerland, or to a broader cultural group, such as a Western society. Society can also refer to an organized group of people linked together for religious, benevolent, cultural, scientific, political, patriotic, or other purposes.

Thursday, May 24, 2007

Diabetic diet

The diet recommended for people who suffer from diabetes mellitus is one that is high in dietary fibre, particularly soluble fibre, but low in fat. Patients may be encouraged to reduce their intake of carbohydrates that have a high glycemic index. However, in cases of hypoglycemia, they are advised to have food or drink that can raise blood glucose quickly, followed by a long-acting carbohydrate (such as rye bread) to prevent risk of further hypoglycaemia.

Recently, Diabetes UK have warned against purchase of products that are specially made for people with diabetes, on the grounds that:

1. They may be expensive,
2. They may contain high levels of fat and
3. They may confer no special benefits to people who suffer from diabetes.

Sunday, May 20, 2007

Education System

Schooling occurs when group or a society or an individual sets up a curriculum to educate people, usually the young. Schooling can become systematic. Sometimes education systems can be used to promote doctrine or ethics as well as knowledge, and this can lead to abuse of the system.

Life-long or adult education have become extensive in many countries. However, education is still seen by many as something aimed at children, and adult education is often branded as adult learning or ultimate learning.

Adult education takes on several forms, from formal class-based learning to self-directed learning. Lending libraries provide cheap informal access to books and other self-instructional materials. Many adults have also taken advantage of the rise in computer ownership and internet access to further their casual education.

Tuesday, May 15, 2007

Design and ergonomics of chair

This unusual rocking chair is made of rough wood to give it an old-fashioned look. Chair design considers intended usage, ergonomics, as well as non-ergonomic functional requirements such as size, stack ability, fold ability, weight, durability, stain resistance and artistic design. Intended usage determines the desired seating position. "Task chairs", or any chair intended for people to work at a desk or table, including dining chairs, can only recline very slightly; otherwise the occupant is too far away from the desk or table. Dental chairs are essentially reclined. Easy chairs for watching television or movies are anywhere in between depending on the height of the screen.

Ergonomic designs distribute the weight of the inhabitant to various parts of the body. A seat that is higher results in hanging feet and increased pressure on the underside of the knees. It may also result in no weight on the feet which means more weight elsewhere. A lower seat may shift too much weight to the "seat bones".

Friday, May 11, 2007


Cream is a dairy product that is composed of the higher-butterfat layer skimmed from the top of milk before homogenization. In un-homogenized milk, over time, the lighter fat rises to the top. In the industrial manufacture of cream this process is accelerated by using centrifuges called "separators". In many countries, cream is sold in several grades depending on total butterfat content. Cream can be dried to a powder for shipment to distant markets.
Cream produced by cows (particularly Jersey cattle) grazing on usual pasture often contains some natural carotenoid pigments derived from the plants they eat; this gives the cream a slight yellow tone, hence the name of the yellowish-white colour cream. Cream from cows fed indoors, on grain or grain-based pellets, is white.

Monday, May 07, 2007


The papaya, is the fruit of the tree Carica papaya, in the genus Carica. It is native to the tropics of the Americas, and was cultivated in Mexico several centuries before the flourishment of the Mesoamerican classic cultures. The original name of the fruit in Nahuatl was chichihualtzapotl, that means "wet-nurse fruit", and it was very connected to fertility concepts.
Nowadays, the papaya is also known as fruta bomba, lechosa (Venezuela, Puerto Rico, the Philippines and the Dominican Republic), mamão, papaw (Sri Lankan English), Papol \ Guslabu (Tree melon) in Sinhalese ), pawpaw or tree melon
It is a small tree, the single stem growing from 5 to 10 m tall, with spirally set leaves confined to the top of the trunk; the lower trunk is noticeably scarred with scars of where leaves and fruit were borne. The leaves are large, 50-70 cm diameter, deeply palmately lobed with 7 lobes. The tree is typically unbranched if unlopped. The flowers are similar in shape to the flowers of the Plumeria but are much smaller and wax like. They appear on the axils of the leaves, maturing into the large 15-45 cm long, 10-30 cm diameter fruit. The fruit is ripe when it feels soft (like a ripe avocado or a bit softer) and its skin has attained an amber to orange hue.

Wednesday, May 02, 2007

First stamps

1847 10c, Scott #2Congress finally provided for the issuance of stamps by passing an act on March 3, 1847, and the Postmaster-General instantly let a agreement to the New York City firm of Rawdon, Wright, Hatch, and Edson. The first stamp issues of the US were offered for sale on July 1, 1847, in NYC, with Boston receiving stamps the following year and other cities subsequently. They consisted of an engraved 5-cent red brown stamp depicting Benjamin Franklin, and a 10-cent value in black with George Washington. As for all US stamps until 1857, they were imperforate. Although a number of philatelists have studied these stamps for years, much remains unknown about the facts of the original contract, design process, and the printing of these stamps.

1 cent, 1851, type IIThe post office had become so well-organized by 1851 that Congress was able to condense the common rate to three cents, necessitating a new issue of stamps. Values integrated a 1c profile of Franklin in blue, a 3c profile of Washington in red brown, a 5c portrait of Thomas Jefferson, and portraits of Washington for 10c green and 12c black values. The 1c stamp achieved disrepute, at least among philatelists, because production problems led to considerable plate modifications, and there are no less than seven major varieties, ranging in price from $100 to $200,000, and sharp-eyed collectors occasionally find the rare types going unrecognized.

Civil war
The outbreak of the American Civil War threw the postal system into turmoil. On April 13, 1861 John H. Reagan, postmaster-general of the Confederate States of America, ordered local postmasters to return their US stamps to Washington DC, while in May the Union decided to withdraw and invalidate all existing US stamps, and to issue new stamps. Associate post offices were left without genuine stamps for several months, and while many reverted to the old system of cash payment at the post office, over one hundred post offices across the South came up with their own temporary issues. Many of these are quite rare, with only single examples existing of some types. Ultimately the Confederate government issued its own stamps; see stamps and postal history of the Confederate States.